Text messaging has become extremely widespread throughout the world — to the point where an increasing number of web applications have integrated SMS to notify users of events, sales or coupons directly through their mobile devices.
In this tutorial, we will cover the fundamentals of sending text messages with PHP.
Before we get into the step-by-step process, you might want to look at a ready-made solution: SMS Sender, available on Envato Market. This PHP script lets you:
- create and import contacts and groups
- send a single SMS, or send bulk SMS to a group or multiple groups
- connect to any SMS gateway with minimal configuration
- customize your SMS or email
- add a link to your SMS and email
- and much more
If you’d prefer to build your text-message sender from scratch, here’s how to do it.
Sending a text message (SMS) message is actually pretty easy.
Below is a simplified diagram of how a message can be sent from a web application to a wireless device.
We’ll break this down — one piece at a time:
- The message is composed using a web application that is stored and executed on a HTTP server and then sent through the internet (“the cloud”) as an email message.
- The email is received by a Short Message Service Gateway (SMS Gateway), which converts the message from an email message to a SMS message.
- The SMS message is then handed to a Short Message Service Center (SMSC), which is a server that routes data to specific mobile devices.
- The message is finally transmitted over the wireless network to the recipient.
Most wireless networks have a SMS gateway through which email messages can be sent as text messages to a mobile device. This is nice, because, from a developer’s standpoint, it is generally free—however, it is of course not a free service for the end user. Fees still apply to the recipient of the message and messages sent via email will be billed as a non-network text message.
Email to SMS
To send a SMS via email, you’ll generally require only two things:
- The phone number or unique identifier of the mobile device you want to reach.
- And the wireless network’s domain name (many can be found in this list of email to SMS addresses)
The following convention can be followed for most carriers:
phoneNumber is the phone number of the mobile device to send the message to, and
domainName.com is the address for the network’s SMS Gateway.
To send a text to Mr. Example, you could simply add 3855550168@to any email client, type a message and hit send. This will send a text message to phone number +1 (385) 555-0168 on the Verizon Wireless Network.
For example, I’ll send a text message to myself using Gmail.
When my phone receives the message, it should look like so:
Let’s take things a step further. Using the SMS Gateway, we can send a text message via email using PHP’s
You can read more about it here.
$todefines the receiver or receivers of the message. Valid examples include:
- user1@ , user2@
- User <user@ >
- User1 <user1@ >, User2 <user2@ >
$subjectis rather self explanatory; it should be a string containing the desired subject. However, SMS do not require a subject.
$messageis the message to be delivered. As mentioned in the PHP manual, “each line should be separated with a LF (\n). Lines should not be larger than 70 characters.”
To replicate the earlier functionality, we could write the following PHP code:
A Test Drive
Let’s run a test with PHP to make that sure everything is setup correctly and that the
When my phone receives the message, it looks like so:
If you are getting an error, see the troubleshooting section.
As you can see in the image above, the message shows that it is from Gmail. This is because I route all my outgoing messages from my local server through that service. Unfortunately, as of this writing, I have been unsuccessful at altering the
From header to reflect an alternate address. It seems that the email headers are stripped and replaced with headers prepared by the SMS gateway. If anyone knows of a workaround, please leave a comment and let the rest of us know!
With the basics out of the way, let’s take this idea and wrap a user interface around it. First we’ll set up a simple form:
Next we’ll sprinkle in some CSS:
This gives us the following simple form:
The most important part to this is the PHP script. We’ll write that bit of code now:
- The script first checks to see if the form has been submitted.
- If yes, it checks to see if the
smsMessagevariables were sent. This is useful in the case where there may be more than one form on the page.
smsMessageare available and
carrierare not empty, it is okay to attempt to send the message.
- The message argument in the
carrierare concatenated and then the message is sent using the
- If data is missing or it cannot be validated, the script simply returns Not all information was submitted.
$resultin case I needed to verify that the message was in fact sent.
The Final Code
In order to use the
…you will have to install and configure a mail server. This is out of the scope of this tutorial. However, if you are working on your local machine, switching to something like XAMPP might solve this problem. Alternatively, try installing Mercury Mail alongside WAMP, MAMP or on a LAMP (or SAMP or OAMP, etc.) system (that’s a lot of ‘AMPs’).
Another option (which is the method I prefer) is to use PHPMailer. Below is an example of how to use PHPMailer to connect to Gmail’s SMTP server and send the message.
Using it is as simple as including a class in your script.
This should print out something along the lines of:
It may take a little more to set up the connection depending on your situation. If you’re planning on using Gmail, Google has provided information on connecting.
There are a myriad of methods to accomplish the task of sending a SMS through a web application. This method is really meant for low volume messaging (most likely less than 1,000 text messages per month) and developers looking to get their feet wet without forking out cash. Other options include:
- Using a SMS Gateway Provider
- Doing a Google search will return plenty of options.
- Most SMS gateway providers include an API for sending messages through a web application.
- You can usually sign up for service for a reasonable price, assuming you are planning on sending at least 1,000 SMS message per month.
- You can rent a short code number.
- Using a GSM modem
- This can be a costly and slow way to do it, since you have to buy a modem and have a contract with a wireless network
- You will also have to use the AT (Hayes) command set.
- Use a direct connection to a wireless network, which will require some strong negotiating and a whole lot of money.
This tutorial is in no way a comprehensive review of sending tex messages with PHP; but it should get you started! I hope this tutorial has been of interest to you. Thank you so much for reading!
If you still need help with this or any other PHP issue, try contacting one of the experienced PHP developers on Envato Studio.